Field-Marshal, parade order, c. 1800.
(From painting by: Charles Thevenin - The Surrender of Ulm)
Organisation & Tactics
Arms & Equipment
Flags & Standards
Major-General, parade uniform, c. 1809 showing the simple style adopted early in the Austrian service, without any epaulettes or any of the elaborate embroidery worn by the French and other nations.
(Print after: R. von Ottenfeld)
Until 1751 general officers had freedom to choose their own uniform and they wore what they pleased, and it was left to Maria Theresa to introduce a white half-length coat with rank designation shown by a broad golden ribbon stripe on the front facings and side-pocket flaps of the coat. This uniform remained virtually unaltered until the eighties, when the gold rank-bars were altered to a zigzag pattern and gold buttons, bearing an embossed star and an ornamented edge, introduced. In 1798 regulations for the first time made some distinction between field service (campagne) and parade (gala) uniforms. Greatcoats were henceforth to be hechtgrau, the same colour as worn by the 49th Regiment Vesque (later Hess), field-marshals wearing red and gold-embroidered collars and cuffs. The gold-bordered black general officer's head-dress with the 25cm high green plum was to be worn only for parades. General adjudants had the traditional green coat originally worn firstly by the horse-grenadiers and then by the Emperor Joseph's Chevaux-Legers des Kaisers (afterwards Uhlan Regiment 16). By an imperial command of 1765 this coat was conferred on all general-adjudants; it had the red linings and facings of the original-pattern coat but with the addition of general officer's buttons. The general-adjudants wore a plain black head-dress with a general's green plume; their waistcoats were straw coloured, with rank shown by the broad gold border stripes; the woolen breeches were of the same colour. Infantry field officer's boots and a gold-mounted sword completed the uniform. Flugeladjutanten (A.D.C.'s__usually to the monarch) wore the same dress as General-Adjutanten except that they had white buttons instead of gold, and a sabre instead of a sword.
The Major-General wore the dress for German general officers, his rank being shown by the zigzag gold stripe on the cuffs. Hungarian cavalry general officers wore an entirely different dress, somewhat similar to that of a hussar, with a half worn Pelz, a Kalpak with a plume of herons feathers, a red dolman, red trousers or overalls with a gold seam stripe, gold spurs, a red sabretache with the imperial arms in gold, and a sabre with a bright steel scabbard.
Archduke Charles and staff watching the battle of Aspern-Essling
(Painting by: Albrecht Adam)
General officers could wear the uniforms of their own regiment with the addition of arank-lace and staff plumes. There also existed a special costume for generals of the Hungarian cavalry, which included a plumed bearskin busby, white pelisse with five rows of buttons, red dolman and breeches, gold lace, black and gold barelled sash, Hessian boots with gilt spurs, sabre with bright steel scabbard, and a red sabretache bearing the Emperor's cypher in gold, with gold lace and silver embroidery as for the hussars. Horse harness was similar to that of a hussar field officer, with gilt fittings; red sabretache of the style of infantry officers, but with two broad black and gold laces, and the Emperor's cypher in the corners. Alternative service uniform included a pike grey pelisse (with rank lace), red dolman and breeches, black felt Hussar shako with gold lace and ornaments, a 25cm green feather plume (general's rank distinction); white cloak, and ordinary hussar overalls or yellow leather Hungarian breeches.