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Adjudant-Officer (c.1815)

Parade Dress of a Kapitan of the Generalstabe (General Staff)


The Cavalry

The Artillery

Organisation &Tactics

Arms & Equipment

Flags & Standards

Bibliography & Sources

Uniform like that worn by
General Blucher in 1815 on
the Waterloo Campaign.

General Officer in the
Leibrock, the collar of which
is the pre-1814 pattern but
which, nonetheless, was worn
until 1815.

The Army

The Infantry - Other Units

The remaining volunteer units were of little significance. In the main they were not used for field operations and their sytrength varied from the complete battalion raised in the Saxon Duchies, the Thuringisches Batallion, to the 42 men of Rittmeister von Winterfeld. Other units that existed in 1813 are listed in table 8 below:

The Infantry - The Uniforms of Generals and Staff Officers

Generals' uniform closely followed the infantry style. Their full dress consisted of a dark blue Kollet, the Generalsrock, which had long coat-tails and Swedish cuffs. The collar, cuffs and coat tails were faced in scarlet and the two fromer items were trimmed with golden oak leaf lacing. From the right shoulder, a golden knotted aiguillette was worn and on the left was a single silver Kaantille. The butons were gilded. The trousers were of the normal officers' pattern, but from September 1815, a double red stripe replaced the single one down the outside seams; this distinction having been worn by staff officers of all grades from earlier in that year. The head-dress was a black felt bicorne, which was worn fore and aft, and to which was affixed a black cockade, below a golden agraffe, and a white and black feather plume. The officers' mixed silver and black sash was worn around the waist.

This full dress uniform was seldom worn in the field. campaighn dress varied, but took the form of one of the other three uniforms that a General was permitted to wear. All these styles of dress were worn with the usual grey trousers and a soft, grey or blue, peaked Schirmutze piped in scarlet, there was a double breasted dark blue Leibrock with gold buttons and scarlet facings; an Interimsrock on which the collars and cuffs were laced in gold and silver Kantille were carried on each shoulder; and an Uberrock. The Uberrock was coloured grey for Generals of Infantry; and dark blue for Generals of Cavalry or Artillery. This distinction of colour between the mounted and dismounted branches of the army applied to the dress of staff officers of all grades, for whom this garment was the most popular form of field service wear.

(1)General's epaulette (rigid bullion fringe). (1a) Generals' cuff embroidery (1b) General's collar embroidery (1c) General's epaulette, elevation (2) Epaulette for Colonels, Lieutenant-Colonels and Majors (3) Captain's epaulette (ground of facing) (4) Lieutenant's epaulette (5) Counter-epaulette of Colonel, Lieutenant-Colonel and Major (6) Captain's counter-epaulette (7) Lieutenant's counter-epaulette (8) Regimental officer's full-dress collar (9) Warrant Officer's collar.

Generals who were Colonels-in-Chief, could also wear their regimental uniform. This was a rare distinction that was usually reserved for members of the Hohenzollern family. At Waterloo, fro instance, the Commander of the IV Armay Corp's reserve cavalry was the King's brother, Prinz Wilhelm, and he wore the field uniform of the Brandenburg Dragoon Regiment.

Frequently, brigades were commanded by Field Officers. In this case the officer would wear the Liebrock uniform of his regiment, together with a cocked hat, instead of the regimental form of head-dress.

The King's Adjudant Generals, General-Adjutant des Konigs, wore a uniform with red facings, gold collar and cuff Litzen and gilded buttons. From the right shoulder hung a golden aiguillette. The tunic was a double breasted infantry officer's Kollet, but in 1808, all cavalry officers who held this position, were authorized to wear a white cavalry Kollet. Head-dress was a shako, but all cavalry officers in staff appointments were required to wear a cocked hat with a white tunic.

Even though Prussian general officers wore the gold lace at collar and cuffs which were the marks of senior officers throughout Europe, the whole effect of the uniform of the Prussian general is markedly simpler than that of their opposite numbers in the French and British services in 1815. In particular, the saddlecloth in black fur with its two silver badges** contrasts strikingly with the gorgeous shabraque of a French general or with the royal blue cloth trimmed with a double line of gold braid and ornamented with the crowned royal cypher that covered the back of a British general's horse of the same period.

**Note: See the illustration below.